A surrogate , also known as a gestational carrier, is a woman who carries and delivers a child for another couple or person who are that child’s intended parents; a gestational carrier can carry an embryo that is created from the intended parents’ own sperm and egg, or donated sperm and/or egg, depending on the family and the fertility issues needinInterested couples will be referred by their fertility clinic to agencies that manage gestational carriers, says Aaron K. Styer, M.D., reproductive endocrinologist and co-medical director of CCRM Boston Reputable agencies, like Circle Surrogacy , Conceivabilities , and The Center for Surrogacy and Egg Donation (CSED), will have completed comprehensive medical and psychological evaluations and background checks of gestational carrier candidates,” Dr. Styer explains, adding that once the intended parents match with a gestational carrier, their infertility doctor will also evaluate her in person to ensure she is medically and psychologically ready to carry a pregnancy.


Of all the ART available to intending parents, surrogacy is arguably the most controversial ( Jadva, 2016 ). Only 19 states in the USA currently allow commercial gestational surrogacy to married same-sex couples and in 15 states it is practiced because no statute or published case law prohibits it ( Creative Family Connection, 2016 ). Given its controversial nature and the fact that intending gay couples may live in a different state to the surrogate, support by families of origin (e.g. parents and siblings) and friends is important through the surrogacy process and after the birth of the child ( Hammarberg et al., 2015 ). A study of gay fathers of children born by surrogacy reported that the families of origin were supportive and excited to become grandparents, with the frequency of contact and visits increasing following the birth of children ( Bergman et al., 2010 ). In donor insemination families headed by heterosexual couples and lesbian mothers, grandparents with a genetic connection to the child have been found to be more involved in the children’s lives than grandparents who lack this connection ( Fulcher et al., 2002 ). Whether families of origin react similarly to genetic fathers (whose parents and siblings will have a genetic connection to the child) versus non-genetic fathers (whose parents and siblings will not) is yet to be explored.


Desire for parenthood: genetic father more strongly; equal desire, non-genetic father more strongly; Preferred path to parenthood: always preferred surrogacy; considered adoption; attempted adoption; Motivations for surrogacy: adoption a less desirable path to parenthood than surrogacy (yes, no); desire for genetic relatedness with child as an individual or as a couple (yes, no); surrogacy was a financially viable option (yes, no); partner’s choice (yes, no); desire for involvement in pregnancy and birth (yes, no); Decision about genetic parenthood: both donated sperm; one donated sperm-more important to one than the other; one donated sperm-turn taking; one donated sperm-medical reason; one donated sperm—sister as egg donor; Motivations for gestational surrogacy: prefer to separate genetic and gestational links to the child (yes, no); agency policies (yes, no), gestational surrogacy enabled a specific family set-up (yes, no).


At The Fertility Center of Las Vegas, we can assist you with every aspect of the surrogacy process from finding your surrogate through an agency, finding the appropriate legal guidance for your home state or your home country, use of donor egg and/or donor sperm, the IVF treatment surrogacy process and patient screenings through the first trimester of pregnancy.


She undergoes IVF to become inseminated with the father’s sperm and mother’s egg (or the egg of a donor ). After delivery, the surrogate gives the baby to his intended parents, who act as legal guardians.


The agreement will also cover who makes medical decisions and how those decisions will be made during a pregnancy, payment of medical bills, liability for medical complications, financial considerations such as the gestational carrier/surrogate’s compensation and expenses including lost wages, legal fees, childcare, housekeeping, and maternity clothes, coverage for life insurance, the need to provide medical history and personal medical information, continued contact through the surrogacy process, and intended parents’ presence during doctor visits and the delivery.